Africa – Americas – Arab States – Asia & Pacific – Central Asia – Europe
When all the ice has melted, first I will be Warm and then I will be Cold.
Stay up to date with the analysis and outcomes of Disaster Risk Reduction and International Law Symposium 2017 by our Reading blog posts.
#ClimateChance #ClimateChance2017 #Agadir #COP22 #COP23 #ONG #Climat #Humanrights
2 #DRR Disaster Risk Reduction – “#Duty-to-Prevent”
Participatory meetings to get to concrete catastrophe risk insurance solutions – “Duty-to-Prevent”
How to bring international law governing disasters up to speed with the global challenges that we face.
Experts say we have three years to save the planet
International law must comply by 2020 at the latest with national #disasterlaw
The dangers of climate change are kept to an absolute minimum
In our action, we must address underlying causes of disaster risk and climate vulnerability. This requires limiting to the maximum the increase in warming below if not well below 1.5 degrees Celsius, a peaking of global emissions by 2020 at the latest, and the achievement of net carbon neutrality by the 2050s in realization of the Paris Agreement.
We will survive and thrive
Expressing solidarity with our fellow member, Haiti, devastated by Hurricane Matthew, a humanitarian catastrophe amplified by capability constraints clearly overwhelming any capacity to adapt in a now all-too familiar repetition of disaster.
We need insurance against disasters
Reinforcing the resilience of our nations, reducing disaster risk, and encouraging members to actively engage in the G7 Climate Risk Insurance which aims to extend insurance coverage for climate-related risk by 2020 to 400 million most vulnerable people in developing countries, and thereafter aim to extend insurance coverage to every community within the territories of our members.
The most effective vulnerability reduction measures for health in the near term are programmes that implement and improve basic public health measures such as provision of clean water and sanitation, secure essential health care including vaccination and child health services, increase capacity for disaster preparedness and response and alleviate poverty.
Options to address heat related mortality include health warning systems linked to response strategies, urban planning and improvements to the built environment to reduce heat stress. Robust institutions can manage many trans-boundary impacts of climate change to reduce risk of conflicts over shared natural resources.
Insurance programmes, social protection measures and disaster risk management may enhance long-term livelihood resilience among the poor and marginalised people, if policies address multi-dimensional poverty.~IPCC
How can insurance play a key role in achieving public and private investment in preventing and reducing disaster risk?
In embarking on a new era of the pursuit of development, ending poverty, leaving no person behind, and protecting the environment, not only are all Sustainable Development Goals and the targets and priorities of the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction achieved by 2030 but also, where possible, their targets are exceeded or their early achievement is accomplished.
Minister Dalle added:
“Without stronger climate action, we might not survive,
and this is not an option.”
“Pay us the saviours of Sendai”
CVF was founded by the Maldives 2009
The Climate Vulnerable Forum at COP21 2015 -#1o5C
2016 Addis Ababa
One needs to rethink development approach making use of a successful development blueprint and the new Sendai and the 2030 SDGs Agendas frameworks to achieve the CVF vision across the whole society and the whole of government approach.
SDGs, Paris Climate Pact
Coherence in the Sendai Framework
III. Guiding principles
19-(a) Each State has the primary responsibility to prevent and reduce disaster risk, including through international, regional, sub-regional, trans-boundary and bilateral cooperation. The reduction of disaster risk is a common concern for all States and the extent to which developing countries are able to effectively enhance and implement national disaster
risk reduction policies and measures in the context of their respective circumstances and capabilities can be further enhanced through the provision of sustainable international cooperation;
19-(h) The development, strengthening, and implementation of relevant policies, plans, practices, and mechanisms need to aim at coherence across sustainable development and growth, food security, health and safety, climate change and variability, environmental management, and disaster risk reductions agendas
19-(h) Disaster risk reduction is essential to achieve sustainable development
Istanbul World Housetrain Summit – Donor guidelines funding hooking on drr principles
New Urban Agenda – Managing policy areas ????
Responsible governments and drr
Human rights law, disaster law, environmental law
Much of international climate change law focuses on mitigation, which encompasses both measures to limit GHG emissions and measures to preserve or enhance sinks. (61) Policies to reduce emissions include energy efficiency standards, subsidies for renewable energy, a carbon tax, an emissions trading system, funding of urban mass transit systems, and technology research and development. Sinks policies generally relate to land use, land-use change, and forestry (LULUCF), and include measures to reduce emissions from deforestation and forest degradation (REDD+)
and to encourage afforestation.
Issue relating to mitigation include:
• Whether to address emissions on an economy-wide basis or at a sectoral level? Generally, the UN climate regime has sought to address aggregate national emissions and has not separated out particular sectors such as electricity generation or buildings. (62) But a few sectors receive specific attention, including emissions from international maritime and air transport, which are addressed through the International Maritime Organization (IMO) and the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO), respectively,(63) and forestry, which is the subject of REDD+.(64)”
harmonising – information sharing – mainstreaming – synchronising
“Some adaptation activities focus specifically on climate change impacts, such as developing heat-resistant crops and building sea walls. But many adaptation activities are aimed at improving the resilience of societies against risks generally, by building capacity, reducing poverty, and strengthening disaster preparedness.
In contrast to mitigation, which requires collective action, adaptation can usually be undertaken by individual states. Moreover, states have an individual incentive to act, since the benefits of adaptation measures generally flow to the state undertaking them, rather than to the international community as a whole. For these reasons, the role of international cooperation is very different for adaptation than for mitigation. An international climate regime need not impose commitments to adapt, since states have an interest in doing so on their own. Instead, the primary function of international cooperation is to provide support for adaptation and to facilitate information sharing.”
Closer integration of disaster risk reduction and climate change adaptation at the international level, and the mainstreaming of both into international development assistance, may foster greater efficiency in the use of resources and capacity. However, stronger efforts at the international level do not necessarily lead to substantive and rapid results at the local level.~IPCC
#climatechange #globalwarming, #KyotoProtocol #Paris Agreement #treaties #framework #convention
Price increases wheat and food products, due to bad harvest – Arab spring 2011
Caribbean catastrophe risk insurance facility (CRIFF) – risk pool
20% of losses covered by insurance facility rest by donors, why?
Hurricanes, water salinization close to the equator
Holland vs. Bangladesh, Ethiopia vs. California
Insurance conversation more important
Pool risk together to cover losses, who should pay?
Parametric insurance trigger premium when disaster happens
Cover losses/damage? w/ premium x 5, not realistic.
Need fire insurance to receive loan as disaster security
Donor pay with money from World Bank or EU
Adjust in regards with Japanese collateral coastal damage (can’t move to the mountains)
New Zealand earthquake commission model (domestic)
Govt, first $130 from state in 2 weeks, rest from private insurers
Normal house insurance premiums
African Risk Capacity (ARC) 32 member countries – risk pool
The Pacific Disaster Risk Financing and Insurance (PCRAFI) – fully funded
Compensation as part of adaptation for loss and damage
Can insurance in preventing and reducing disaster risk?
Indemnification not compensation
Risk reflective premium completely unfordable
Risk cooling yes, governmental (no consumer pays)
Risk cooling int. cooperation
CA earthquake authority 10% take up rate
Moral hazard Italy
Get people out of hazard zones related to risk.
Risk transfer as a proxy for risk reduction. Moving the risk is not risk reduction
ARC: Risk transfer not risk reduction. Least developed countries, pay-out to help people, not adaptation. Adaptation need depends on countries with the most need.
How do you trigger that to become a forcing mechanism for change? How do you tie the money to be played out to society to reduce the risk instead of just paying of the loss?
Imagine how to operate, contextualise DRR coherence? What instrument can be used AI? Machine learning w/o grassroots’ silos. Boomerang has reached the cloud.
New treaties include Policy Coherence for Development (PCD)
Sendai monitoring narrative for nations, how do you balance this national and international?
Disaster Risk Management vs. Disaster Risk Financing (Optimal model)
disaster risk management
Potential synergies between international finance for disaster risk management and adaptation to climate change have not yet been fully realised. There is a need for better assessment of global adaptation costs, funding and investment. Studies estimating the global cost of adaptation are characterised by shortcomings in data, methods and coverage. ~IPCC
- Mass migration
Terrorism insurance in no demand
Nation’s national risk register (100)
Transfer risks from government balance sheet into private sector balance sheet
Risk reflective prising hard in relation to climate change
Supply side – Demand side (product for profit) (Black swan event)
Risk pooling mechanism, government, insurance, business and academia
Optimal model for risk sharing – Global
Resilient is a purpose
Control behaviour with Incentive/Stick 80/20
FEMER disaster insurance partner in Florida
NZ – IQC and ECC insurance schemes
Recommendation reduction in premium (for e.g. implementation)
RE Insurance à Risk mitigation à Resilience
“Prepare strategy” could improve a blueprint for other insurance areas
Devolution – sharing best practice and developing shared policies
Houses on stilts, electrical plugs halfway up the wall
Public private initiative better handling the money
We live in a sharing economy
On case of disaster
Lower the premium if property owner can house migrants from hazard zone.
This way the victim will learn.
This way insurance will lower premium and reduce risk in loss and damage transfer.
In case of a disaster it’s about to move evacuate an amount of people to safety.
With all respect it’s more of a humanitarian issue. Law have to adept either over government bodies or over borders.
Sovereign risk pools start sharing risks internationally (Pan-Asian, Pan-European)
Capital markets risk sharing for terror attacks (Insurance link security as a bond)
If risk is not limited to national border
Acean and south pacific risk management broadway disaster risk reduction
Section 28. Need for regional cooperation
Need for acute regional cooperation
Three institutional models
Intuitionalism ACEAN (to stop conflict, non-intervention)
2007 New charter new narrative cooperation, collaboration, single market even disaster management (1970, 2003-2005 (ADMER)) binding disaster management and emergency response from 2008. Hyogo Framework for Action (HFA) – UNISDR
Ground problem: If minimal monitor reports requested. Indigenous funding limited.
Regionalism South Pacific
PIF (Pacific Forum) devolved authority to South Pacific Unity (Development)
NGOs and development partners and stats working along formal bodies.
World society theory, Imagined truths
Stats have to cooperate more
No-build zones (40 meters from the shoreline), buffer zones, planned re-location, relocation risk
States as translator of priority actions
Typhon Huyan Category 5
Informal settlements (average 19 years)
Building back better
Incorporate DRR in human settlements
Risks with incorporation of International standards land use and urban planning, it become national plans for relocation. Policy failure – Translation à Outputs and relocation through commitment become relocation (Hyogo Framework do not refer to relocation). Lack of transitional housing.
Unsupported substantial self-settlements without assistance shelter permanent shanti towns
Disaster risk enhanced rather than reduced, extreme vulnerability
Consequences with best laid plans
Sendai re-location (priority 3)
We are applicable and possible (ethics) à Unpack being cynical
Planned re-location after drr, lack controlling human mobility + informal settlements =
“Recipe for disaster”
Will capacity building allow territorial regions and states to control human mobility, when you got longterm history conflict over land, contested authority systems over land, post-colonial land policy experiences?
Land use planning may not be DRR measure when there is a history settlement formality.
Land use planning need to be investigated in the Sendai framework. Land use has disproportional effects on those who lack documentation after disaster.
Informal housing and urban poverty reduction slum upgrading
Land use planning is not post disaster recovery without reference the emergency face requirements to where it should occur.
Buffer zone proposals
Align with guiding principles in internal replacement and other human right (last resort bla bla) standards
Human interacting with other humans there is where we have the greatest catchment area
Awareness needed on assumption on no return / provision on return.
Don’t apply old frames on new area DRR
Incentives and drivers
72 hours raise shelter to host people for 3 month
Let them go/move back with shelter assistance
Single official voice principle
Many more natural disasters
Advancing in communication
Vertical (ACEA) vs. Horizontal (Switzerland 2008) approach
Sendai no national level
Local, global, regional or sub-regional
EFAS European Flood Awareness System 2012 (61 partner organisation, regional)
Training of system exclusive for partners
Real time information
Forecasts information with leap times of 10-15 days
Risk: Could undermine national sources
Warning for redundant information
National and Regional and Approaches
Legal frameworks for search and rescue
Maritime and Aviation
Arctic Maritime SAR-agreement different from Urban SAR agreement
Imposing on regional cooperation
Indigenous people of the north (early warning systems phased out)
Correlation -3 degrees, gasoline sales for snow mobiles (Canadian paper)
North warning system
Salvage convention Shipmasters cooperation between parties to save life
Change in 2006 Chapter 132 – Rescue to a place of safety (After migration in sea incident) $100
Distress alerts 24/7
Imposing obligations upon states to assist, and make inquires for investigations thereafter
Arctic Council – Pollution response agreement
Ref: Traffic increasing – capability gaps
Sovereignty: A request by one party wanting to enter by another state, response must be received back
Entirely communications convention tele command telecommunication devises
More countries involved in SAR final arrangements
Lack of infrastructure
UK National health partnership e.g. public health England
Floods: Met office/Environment agency
Aristoteles programme for early warning systems linked to Brussels – Should common standards be adopted for regional or transboundary alerting protocol?