High Level Meeting on #NewUrbanAgenda and UN-Habitat

GENERAL ASSEMBLY OF THE UNITED NATIONS

Setting the scene – High Level Meeting on New Urban Agenda and UN-Habitat – September 5 – September 6

To realise the potential, however, the challenges cannot be ignored. Urban populations continue to grow in much of the world, poverty and humanitarian crises and conflict are becoming increasingly urban phenomena, and the urban risks from climate change are intensifying. Concerted efforts, global, national and local, in both developed and developing countries, are urgently needed to address current challenges, alleviate increasing inequalities, and anticipate future threats. The 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Opportunities (encompassing the Sustainable
Development Goals, the Paris Agreement on Climate Change, the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction and the Addis Ababa Conference on Financing for Development) will not be met without serious attention to urban realities. The New Urban Agenda provides a roadmap for this
on-going transition, and UN-Habitat, with the entire UN development system, has a potentially critical role in supporting countries to effectively implement this Agenda.

The urban transition is essential to economic growth. Yet this basic reality is still unrecognised by many major actors, from national governments to international institutions, resulting in policies that limit migration in an attempt to slow urbanisation and restrict the access of local urban governments to development financing. Despite the restrictions, urban migration continues, and in the absence of inclusive and supportive policies and investment, this means limited opportunity for hard pressed new residents, growing backlogs in provision of services, increasing informality and the disappearance for many residents of the vaunted “urban advantage”. In many countries, for example, while rural child mortality rates are improving, in urban areas they are stagnating or
becoming worse. Poverty, hunger, disease, vulnerability to disaster, violence, are all becoming increasingly prevalent in many urban areas.
The urban transition will be more or less complete in fifty years. If it is not steered constructively now, the urban dividend could in many more
places become a disaster marked by inequality exclusion, inadequate basic service provision, humanitarian crises and growing civil strife.

The challenges in poor urban settlements are intensified in many areas by the mounting hazards associated with extreme weather. Cities, with their concentrations of population and assets, face high levels of risk, especially in coastal or riverside locations. Urban economies of scale and proximity can give cities a strong adaptive capacity, but the benefits seldom extend to all parts of a city. Informal settlements are often in the most hazardous locations – floodplains, hillsides at risk of landslides, sites close to industrial wastes – and unserved by the protective infrastructure that allows people to withstand extreme conditions – roads, drains, early warning systems and emergency services. Residents in poverty also have more limited capacity to prepare for, withstand and recover from a range of weather extremes. These same extremes, along with conflict, are pushing more people into towns and cities. By 2016, 80 million people globally were displaced by conflicts and disasters. Numbers keep climbing, and more than half end up now in towns and cities, adding to the burdens faced by overtaxed local authorities. Full blown conflict, often over access to land and scarce urban resources, has also become an increasingly common feature of urban areas, contributing to the emergence of the new category of the “fragile city.”

 

The call for action: The 2030 agenda and the New Urban Agenda

Recognising the critical need for action on pressing urban issues, government representatives at the Habitat III conference in Quito in 2016 adopted the New Urban Agenda (NUA), emphasising the links between urbanisation and development and the crucial need for inclusive and sustainable urban growth. The ambitious 2030 Agenda, adopted a year before the NUA, provides a critical overarching roadmap for this effort. Its 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), designed for stimulating action in areas critical for humanity and the planet, include Goal 11 – making cities and human settlements inclusive, safe, resilient and sustainable. Without attention to this urban Goal, and to the urban implications of the other 16 Goals, none of the SDGs is likely to succeed. Together the NUA and SDGs point the way for cities to be part of sustainable global
development. Equally important in this endeavour are the Paris Climate Change Agreement, the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction and the Addis Ababa Action Agenda.

 

The scope of the commitment

Yet urban areas, with their growing majority of the global population, their concentration of both economic risk and potential, their vulnerability to climate-related disasters, and their relationships with surrounding areas, are not only relevant to realising this Agenda, they are central to its success, and the stage on which the SDGs will or will not be achieved. Most of the Goals necessarily have urban implications, and without significant attention to urban realities in all their manifestations and complexity, the ambitious objectives of the SDGs cannot be realised.

 

Public-private partnerships – ITU

ICTs for Disaster Risk Reduction and Climate Change Adaptation for SIDS

THE HABITAT III INNOVATION and SUSTAINABILITY PRINCIPLE

Climate Chance Summit in #Agadir

Morocco’s concerns about the climate are not fading. After Marrakesh, it is Agadir’s turn to bring together the concerned actors, but this time in the framework of a Summit. Indeed, the city of Agadir will host the 2nd;
WORLD CLIMATE CHANCE SUMMIT FOR NON-STATE ACTORS from September 11 to 13, 2017.

It’s a privilege to participate n’ #ClimateChance 2017, formalising the conversation on;
– reducing the vulnerability of countries to the impacts of climate change by strengthening their resilience adaptation.
– integration of adaptation to the climate change in development policies, programmes and projects as well as in National Budgeting.
– facilitation of access to climate risk transfer for disaster adaptation.
The first one took place in Nantes, this 2nd edition is Moroccan and will measure the progress of the action, To deepen exchanges on successes and difficulties and to foster the pooling of experiences and innovations. Also, this edition will place particular emphasis on the stakes of the African continent and more widely the countries of the South.

 

On this occasion, the organisers stressed: “Almost one year after COP22,  This Summit will be an opportunity to take stock of the agenda of the action and in particular the Marrakesh partnership. It will also be an opportunity to prepare joint messages to be delivered to States at the COP23 as a Follow-up The Nantes Declaration, which remains the most widely signed text by non-state actors. Since the adoption of the Rio Convention on Climate in 1992 “. It should be recalled that the Declaration of Nantes was adopted at the World Summit in September 2016 in Nantes and coordinated by the Climate Chance Association.

 

It has as its motto “Strengthening concrete action to bridge the gap between current commitments and the objective of the Paris Agreement”. The program of this edition consists of three usual pillars of Climate Chance:  There are first the forums to Take stock of COP23 on the actions of the 20 sectoral coalitions (transport, energy, etc.). To these forums are added plenaries, organised in the usual way of Climate Chance. These opening and closing plenaries will address the themes of Financing, the challenge of cities in Africa and migration. The workshops constitute the 3rd pillar. A call for papers was launched on 28 February and remained open until 15 May to decide on the workshops that will enrich the program and make it a moment of sharing and reflection. The selected contributors authorize the Climate Chance Association to reuse and communicate their work.

 

Climate Chance also thought about organising stands, totally free, Where non-state groups and African associations will be represented. The Summit also provided specific events to highlight crafts and local territory.

 

With more than 80 workshops of good practice, which will be presented around 17 themes affecting different sectors and a large participation involving more than 3,000 members, this 2nd edition of the Climate Chance Summit is promising.

 
 

Source: Libe’ration

#DRR Disaster Risk Reduction – #DutytoProtect

Africa – Americas – Arab States – Asia & Pacific – Central Asia – Europe

 

When all the ice has melted, first I will be Warm and then I will be Cold.

Stay up-to-date with the analysis and outcomes of Disaster Risk Reduction and International Law Symposium 2017 by our Reading blog posts.

#ClimateChance #ClimateChance2017 #Agadir #COP22 #COP23 #ONG #Climat #Humanrights

1 #DRR Disaster Risk Reduction – “#Duty-to-Protect”

Disaster law initiatives to combat climate change – “Duty-to-Protect”

How to grapple with the increasing frequency and severity of a wide array of both ‘human-made’ and ‘natural’ disasters.

Experts say we have three years to save the planet

International law must comply by 2020 latest with national #disasterlaw

Under Sendai Framework priority 2 – Strengthening disaster risk governance to manage disaster risk (Duty to protect);

Global and regional levels
28. To achieve this, it is important:
(a) To guide action at the regional level through agreed regional and sub-regional strategies and mechanisms for cooperation for disaster risk reduction, as appropriate, in the light of the present Framework, in order to foster more efficient planning, create common information systems and exchange good practices and programmes for cooperation and capacity development, in particular to address common and trans-boundary disaster risks;

Are disaster management services the main duty-bearers to roll out DRR?

Break down legal fragment between DRR, Climate adaptation, the Tree proposal, Sendai framework, the SDGs, also between nuclear regulations.

Land use and forestry proposal for 2021-2030 – Forest laws to reduce deforestation.

National framework regulations needed now in;

  • Land use and urban planning
  • Building codes – Retrofits of existing buildings, Exemplary new buildings and Efficient equipment
  • Environment and resource management
  • Safety standards

 

Connect DRR and climate change, after New Zeeland 2010 Building code demolish or rescue.

2011 International convention from prevention of pollution from ships.

Mexico mainstreamed DRR law in all sectors. France mayor sent to prison for ignoring DDR laws.

Civil protection law = Disaster management (law to much focus on response)

Sectoral laws like Climate change adoption laws and development approvals important in rural and sub-urban areas. Linkage between environment laws and climate change laws.

Why do we need a lawyer? Protection of rights links to disaster

Legal disaster

Customs law disaster

Why compulsion and force?

Why international? Paragraph 14 Cooperation legal and not

Consent Capacity Building (ILC) framework adopted 2 months after Sendai 2018 next

Legislation/Regulations Is it a Self form of disaster risk reduction DRR?

Can monitoring DRR indicators alone identify (urban/rural) hazards and exercise disaster relief law of public response?

Disaster Ill-star

1950-60 Defense did research on disaster

Values scope and scale of a loss

Volition choices in relation to hazards

Valocity policies response times’ project, risk, predict – time horizon

Vicinity geography also social cultural economic, legal overlays

Vulnerabilities = impact outcome (origin)

Viewpoints philosophy

Victims disaster label, response label (victim-hood)

Katrina –> Depress obsess –> Super dome

Victims vs. Cash / Charity patterns

Natural more emo than man-made disaster

2003 August heatwave 14 802 (living on climbing 7th floor) – Time frame Chernobyl 100 (1 000 cancer)

Does climate legislation and regulation protect Who is an (urban/rural) disaster victim, healthy/sick people?

 

Core DRR mitigation and prevention response to disasters and hazards – linked to relief union

1st November 1755 Lisbon earthquake 1/3 loss – Urbanisation important

Voltaire unforeseeable and random – Urbanisation important

1927 National Relief Union

Preventive measures against disasters

UN early warning systems – Iran earth quake 1963

Pollution Sustainable Development

1980 Prevention Natural Disaster Reduction

1992 Rio declaration

UNFCCC – Framework Climate Change

Kyoto protocol

1991 Resolution 46182

Yokohama Framework

Millennium change

Climate change, Human rights, Environment law

Sendai

PREVENTION at activities and measures to avoid existing and new disaster risks.

MITIGATION de-licensing or minimizing of impact of hazardous events.

PREPARDENESS capacity developed by governments responds and recover organisation, community or individuals to effectively anticipate respond to and recover from the impact of likely or imminent or current disasters.

Commentary

Early Warning Systems

SARC-agreement

The obligation of recording casualties is not an instrument of to reflect disaster victims

Urban Disaster Law

Duty is a conduct and not a result, to shall reduce risk of disaster and harm precaused thereby.

 

The U. N. Human Rights Council adopted the resolution, which was submitted by the Brazilian and Ecuadorian governments, last month at its headquarters in Geneva. Diplomats say the document could now lay the groundwork for more cities-focused work by the council –>

GOOD NEWS Adopted resolution #L30 – 37th Meeting, 35th Session Human Rights Council http://webtv.un.org/watch/ahrc35l.30rev.1-vote-item3-37th-meeting-35th-regular-session-human-rights-council/548071109600

Can the Sendai framework be enforced? Is there a will to extend the new international treaties within the domestic jurisdiction?

Exploring accountability, implementation and enforcement in the Sendai framework

States have a disaster law impact on human rights not only in their own territories.  Also, often there is an extraterritorial disaster law impact – on people in the rest of the world.

This project aims to provide a critical evaluation of the law and policy of whether and to what extent disaster law vs. human rights law is and should be applicable to states extraterritoriality.

When forced climate migrants decide to make perilous border crossings: the causal role of disaster

Themes:
Climate Change, Community-based DRR, Education & School Safety, Environment & Ecosystems, Gender, Health & Health Facilities, Disaster Risk Management, Critical Infrastructure, Vulnerable Populations, Children and Youth

#ClimateChance #CCAgadir17 #Cities #EUSEW17 #c40cities #NUA #NAU #CCCRdg #Habitat3 #Humanrights

 

#SendaiFramework #Switch2Sendai #Policy #Governance

#Cities #Safety #Arctic #Maritime

#UCEEP

#HumanRights

#DRRplanning

#REinsurance

#Implementation

#EWS #EarlyWarningSystems

#Hazards

#Federation Disaster Law Programme

#RedCross #Oilspills #ocean #ships #environment

#Disasterlaw #UrbanDisasterLaw

#law #disaster #risk #reduction

 

RE: CALL FOR PAPERS – DRR AND INTERNATIONAL LAW SYMPOSIUM REJECTED

Dear All,

Please find below a link to Climate Change Centre Reading´s (CCCRdg) abstract – http://media1.tvb-climatechallenge.org.uk/2017/03/CLIMATE-CHANGE-CENTER-READING-PAPER_DRR-AND-INTERNATIONAL-LAW-SYMPOSIUM.pdf

CCCRdg know “#drr and sustainable urban opportunities”, it is within our expertise area, we find it is important, it is our duty and responsibility to publish our paper abstract to the public. To establish a local private sector law case, providing collaborative commitment to “DISASTER RISK REDUCTION PLAN IN RDG COUNCIL LEGISLATION”

#switch2sendai #MEXICOGP2017 #Localisation #CitiinCiti #Citi2Citi

Also an emergency adaptation DRR – Disaster Risk Reduction and restoration plan for every city needs to be implemented in local legislation #UCEEP – All cities need to draft Urban Climatic Emergency Evacuation Plan (#UCEEP) by 2020.

Walker INSTITUTE and University of Reading DRR AND INTERNATIONAL LAW SYMPOSIUM cannot excel cities impact on DRR law without connecting it to the agreed outcome of the Habitat III:s conference on urban settlements, the agreed New Urban Agenda in relation to the Paris Agreement and the Sustainable Development Goal 11 and Goal 13.

 

Dear Climate Change Centre Reading,

Regarding Climate Change Centre Reading’s (CCCRdg) paper abstract on the upcoming symposium on Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR) and international law:

“Regrettable your paper; “Aiming for cities ambitious task to take on and implement the Sendai framework on DRR in the New Urban Agenda

(Making a link to the following theme; (2) how DRR related law and policy will/should develop within specific fields of city law), (participation of governmental, intergovernmental, private, NGO/civil society, academic, and media sectors)

has been rejected.

Best wishes”

The preparatory committee DISASTER RISK REDUCTION AND INTERNATIONAL LAW SYMPOSIUM
29 June-1 July 2017, University of Reading, UK

 

BACKGROUND

SYMPOSIUM OVERVIEW Please join us at the University of Reading between 29 June and 1 July 2017 for the Disaster Risk Reduction and International Law Symposium organised by the Reading School of Law and the multidisciplinary Walker Institute, co-sponsored by the American Society of International Law (Disaster Law Interest Group). Framed around the principles and objectives underpinning the Sendai Framework on DRR 2015-30, and cognisant of the relevance of other global initiatives including the Sustainable Development Goals 2015 and UN Framework Convention on Climate Change, this will be a unique opportunity to discuss, debate, inform and progress the development of law, policy and practice governing DRR and disasters at the national, regional and international levels.

CALL FOR PAPERS Papers are invited which examine one or more of the following research questions, and should be framed around key principles and objectives of the Sendai Framework on DRR:

(1) What ‘soft’ and ‘hard’ law DRR related norms currently exist within international law, whether more generally or within specific legal regimes?

(2) How will/should DRR related law and policy develop within specific fields of law?

(3) What are the current and potential law, policy and/or practice implications of findings in (1) and/or (2), especially in relation to improving the coherence of DRR law at national/regional/ global levels, and associated implementation and enforcement mechanisms? Adopted approaches should include: (a) regional or country-specific case studies; (b) theoretical/ conceptual frameworks; and/or (c) examples of state/non‑state actor practice.

Reading, UK 19/03/17

School of Law

University of Reading, UK

Sustainable Urban Opportunities for Dummies 2016

Sustainable Development Goals No. 11 plus No. 5 – #SDG11 + #SDG5
Vision – suggested ECO4CLIM_Rdg Climate, Innovation +Jobs Draft Strategy w/ target: Urban eco-philosophy will, in a few years, develop 50 labs across the world / empower more than 500 urban ecopreneurs / generate 3,000 green jobs and directly avoid hundreds of tons of CO2 emissions into the atmosphere.

Urbanisation and industrialisation has gradually led people away from living in natural environment depriving them of the health benefits of nature such as natural light, green views, local biodiversity, and natural landscapes.

Anyone can, contribute to a sustainable and resilient city structure as long they stay within to the city’s territorial boundaries and do not trespass it’s surrounding greenbelt. If new land is taken for development the case is lost.

The magic “Glocal” urban safe formula has formed from the perspective less is more, such as “back to the basics concept” or just “keep it simple”;

  • A healthy environment is based on healthy (100% clean) quality levels in soil, water and air, this is ecology.
  • A healthy social environment (society) is based on fundamental humane values (all living beings included) wholesome eating, living and interaction.

There are about 1000 #urban videos circulating the web
The following eight videos will explain most of it, what you are missing you can Google.

     

    

    

     

Why not support our next generation and share the hashtag #COY12
https://twitter.com/search?q=%23COY12&f=videos&src=tyah

This three minute video explains all you need to know about the 2015 Paris Agreement and how it will help to address climate change and promote the sustainable development goals (SDGs). The Paris Agreement entered into force on 4 November 2016, creating binding commitments. The video highlights the need for further ambition by governments and businesses.Track 0 is releasing an animated video - The  in a Nutshell - Inspiring decisive action on climate change, to get on track for a zero emissions future compatible with the Paris Agreement and 1.5°C limit

Over a hundred advanced Conventions, Treaties, Agreements and Frameworks have been globally agreed and put in place during 2016. We decided to take a look at a handful of simpler declarations, of thousands of papers, policies, guidelines and text documents.

In writing Climate Change Centre Reading (CCCRdg) has added 7 current general Declarations on sustainability and protection, women leaders and the global transformation, to deeply consider for local government implementation;

Basque Declarationhttp://conferences.sustainablecities.eu/basquecountry2016/declaration

10 EXCITING ANNOUNCEMENTS MADE AT EE GLOBAL 2016! – http://eeglobalforum.org/latest-news/10-exciting-announcements-made-at-ee-global-2016

UNEP – Principle 10 and the Bali Guideline – http://www.unep.org/civil-society/Implementation/Principle10/tabid/105013/Default.aspx

Nantes Declaration of climate actors –http://www.climatechance2016.com/uploads/media/5800c65beb61c.pdf

UNACLA Quito Declaration – http://unhabitat.org/unacla-quito-declaration

Global Climate Action Agenda – The “feminization of urbanisation” Roadmap – http://newsroom.unfccc.int/climate-action/global-climate-action-agenda

Belt and Road- New Path to Regional Development –http://www.cn.undp.org/content/china/en/home/operations/projects/south-south-cooperation/global-governance–.html

The Marrakech Vision –
http://www.thecvf.org/marrakech-vision

How can resilient cities buy us time to secure and safeguard our habitats against coming superstorms?

Based on the fact that everything is connected, how do we know which pathways to follow?

The way forward is lasting habitats CO2lutions* enhancing Garden or Wildlife Cities, car free with underground density functions where all of us take on a purpose driven keepers role. These spatial urban aerial habitats are disaster response ready of course.

43 urban innovations that could be applied to the #Reading2050 vision,
https://www2.habitat3.org/bitcache/f1afbb98fec1c3fb8c775ee7b88e4e1334ccd3c9?vid=586936&disposition=inline&op=view

END

* We also need to undertake a work programme under the CP21/New Urban Agenda framework for SDG11 + SDG5 approaches to sustainable safe development with the objective of considering how to enhance linkages and create synergy between, inter alia, mitigation, adaptation, finance, technology transfer and capacity-building, and how to facilitate the implementation and coordination of SDG11 + SDG5 approaches.

 

#WTPD2016 #climatechance #COP22 #innovation #cities #Climathon #CWNYC #Innovationmonth #InnoTrans2016 #Business #RE100 #IoE #Sustainability #ParisAgreement #AccordDeParis #SDG11 #Changemaker #villes #regions #smartcities #startup #energy #entrepreneur #climat #climate #renewable #economy #NetZero #EnergyStorage #sharing #BatteryStorage #Photosyntesis #SBI45 #SBSTA45 #CMA 1 #APA

Habitat III Conference in #Quito in October 2016 should show territorial coherence

totheworld2

Congratulations to the Netherlands parliament’s brave decision to close down their coal industry. 

Thank you to #ClimateChance and partner for organising this important stakeholder event in Nantes.

Thank you, to the Habitat III Panel discussing the #NewUrbanAgenda (NUA) in this climate forum – “On the road to Habitat III, what is the place for proposals from non-state actors?” (28/09/16, 9-11 am)

It was mentioned that 15 of the paragraphs of the New Urban Agenda addresses cities and climate change. Economic growth and development is mentioned as many times! While half the world is trying to stop the petroleum companies from drilling activities.. These two polarised position doesn’t match!

The NUA’s responsibility is to make cities divest from fossil energy and reinvest in urban sustainable opportunities.

We stress the importance of the use of funds mobilized by climate action, both mitigation and adaptation, for the development of sustainable cities and rural territories, considering that the New Urban Agenda that will be adopted by the UN member States during Habitat III Conference in Quito in October 2016 should show territorial coherence respecting the various global challenges we face.

In the agreed Habitat III document we need a paragraph about urban degrowth and protecting our green belts, shrinking cities,, There should even be a shut-down paragraph of cities and how to rewild shut-down cities.
https://www2.habitat3.org/bitcache/97ced11dcecef85d41f74043195e5472836f6291?vid=588897&disposition=inline&op=view

What is the really the views of the on the new data driven UN-cities concept?

Is the Habitat III agenda about smart purpose driven cities or is Habitat III trying to create a city in city?  When it comes to stakeholder’s engagement and multi-actor governance, this is urgent;

·        Keep it simple

·        Implementation, Implementation, Implementation

·        Build back better

What is the military’s stakeholder role in the new urban agenda? Military reserves for urban capability building in a peaceful world.

How will the new urban agenda leaver with liberté, égalité, fraternité? Maybe it’s time to change city development to “opportunité de villes”!

Wouldn’t we prefer to see purpose-driven agenda, with one purpose to sustain, all urban human activities..

“Proud to be on the list of the “Nantes Declaration of climate actors” signatories that will be presented in Quito during Habitat III”

 

http://www.climatechance2016.com/en

http://www.climatechance2016.com/uploads/media/5800c65beb61c.pdf

Planners – White LED Blue Light and its effect on Humans and Wildlife Habitat

WORLDWIDE LED RESPONSIBILITY

Light affects our health and well-being in many ways. White LED’s with blue-rich spectra are being rolled out over the country at an alarming pace, often without proper health or environmental impact assessments. These white LED’s are detrimental to human and wildlife circadian rhythms as well as the view of our night sky. 1,2,3 , Urgent action is needed to ensure installation of LED lights use a warm-white Correlated Colour Temperature (CCT) ideally 2700K for the benefit of Public Health, Ecology, Road Safety, and Sky Glow.

BLUE_LIGHT

“Lighting planners and policymakers in local government nowadays need to be very careful in choosing the light class as low as possible, in order to avoid unnecessary over sizing, in using Constant Light Output for luminaires, avoiding cold temperature of LEDs and, above all, seizing the importance of using lighting control systems. The good thing about LEDs is that you can dim and switch on/off easily, and this raises the importance of sensors.”~#Alan2016

There are currently very few solutions that successfully combine an understanding of the physiological effects of light with efficiency and aesthetics. Recently, a number of governmental and non-governmental organisations have provided interesting publications which should be taken into consideration to help ensure benign, safe, and pleasant lighting in our outdoor environment. 4,5,6

The American Planning Association (APA) recommends outdoor LED lighting exclude wavelengths below 500 nanometers. The International Dark Sky Association (IDA) recommends a CCT of maximum 3000K to minimise sky glow and the American Medical Association (AMA) has issued guidelines recommending that blue-rich light is reduced as far as possible in order to protect Public Health.

The American Planning Association (APA) recommends outdoor LED lighting exclude wavelengths below 500 nanometers. 5 The International Dark Sky Association (IDA) recommends a CCT of maximum 3000K to minimise sky glow and the American Medical Association (AMA) has issued guidelines recommending that blue-rich light is reduced as far as possible in order to protect Public Health. 7,8,9,10 In the UK, Public Health England are recommending that councils use a warm colour temperature for street lights to miminise glare and discomfort. 4 Unfortunately, street lighting is currently exempt from the UK nuisance regulations which limit the effects of light and noise on people. Due to a lack of clear guidelines from Central Government, notably the Department for Transport, councils often opt for blue-rich white LED street lights, thus increasing light pollution.

An example may be taken from the situation on the Isle of Wight, where high CCT LED outdoor lighting has been installed, and there was little or no public consultation nor any trials prior to implementation. 11 Reading Borough Council is currently planning to install streetlights with a CCT of 4000K, which is above the recommended level of 2700K, despite awareness of Public Health England having advised otherwise. 12 In contrast, best practice of lighting implementation can be found in Cardiff and Westminster Council. In 2014, the Campaign to Protect Rural England (CPRE) sent out a survey which collected responses from over 80 local authorities. CPRE has published a document which provides 9 key recommendations based on this evidence and other evidence directly collected by CPRE. 6

The scientific understanding on the visual and non-visual effects of light forms a strong basis of the recommendations to minimise glare and to minimise spectral intensity below 500nm from artificial night time light.1,2,3,13,14,15,16

In 2014, the Campaign to Protect Rural England (CPRE) sent out a survey which collected responses from over 80 local authorities. CPRE has published a document which provides key recommendations based on this evidence and other evidence directly collected by CPRE:

“It should be clear to planners that outdoor lighting has a multitude of often detrimental effects on the built and natural environments as well as on our health. If existing standards are not adjusted to account for the spectral characteristics of the LED lighting being created and promoted by the lighting industry today, we could, ironically, be faced with higher levels of light pollution, glare, and overlighting…The choice is clear: we can use responsible standards to guide lighting design, or we can continue to allow uncontrolled lighting to degrade our quality of life and negatively impact human health and ecology. Planners have important roles to play in making the former scenario a reality in their communities.” – Bob Parks, APA 5

“Local authorities should give careful consideration to the type of LED lighting they use and consider the potential impacts that higher temperature blue rich lighting has on ecology and on human health… New street lighting should be tested ‘in situ’ before a lighting scheme is rolled out across a wider area to ensure that it is the minimum required for the task and does not cause a nuisance to residents.” – Emma Marington, CPRE 6

The scientific understanding on the visual and non-visual effects of light forms a strong basis of the recommendations to minimise glare and to minimise spectral intensity below 500nm from artificial night time light.

“A National Policy to curb blue-rich light pollution is urgently required”~

 

– Ms Tanja Rebel and Mr Enrico Petrucco, Reading UK

 

All references have been provided as free, full access, internet-accessible sources wherever possible.

  1. http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0067798
  2. http://www.dynamics.org/~altenber/PROJECTS/MAUI/STARRY_NIGHTS/ARTICLES/Falchi+Cinzano++Haim_limiting.2011.pdf
  3. http://www.johanneroby.net/uploads/3/0/8/8/30887717/lptmm2015-manage-roby.pdf
  4. Public Health England, http://www.lightmare.org/docs/PHE-CIBSE-SLL_LED_report_May2016HRLBL-b.pdf
  5. APA, http://volt.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/09/PAS-Memo_MayJune2014_cr.pdf
  6. CPRE,  http://www.cpre.org.uk/resources/countryside/dark-skies/item/download/3497
  7. IDA, http://bit.ly/28L65Us
  8. IDA guide, http://darksky.org/lighting/led-practical-guide
  9. AMA, http://bit.ly/1XZzsz3
  10. AMA statement, http://www.ama-assn.org/ama/pub/news/news/2016/2016-06-14-community-guidance-street-lighting.page
  11. https://isleofwight.greenparty.org.uk/files/IsleOfWight/Street-lighting-are-we-in-the-dark.pdf
  12. http://www.reading.gov.uk/media/5523/Item-1A/pdf/Item01A.pdf
  13. http://www.sps.ch/en/articles/various-articles/ueber-den-einfluss-des-lichtes-auf-den-menschen/lighting-application-for-non-visual-effects-of-light
  14. http://m.pnas.org/content/112/4/1232.full
  15. http://advances.sciencemag.org/content/2/6/e1600377.full
  16. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0022407313004792

Regional Government of Andalusia [PDF]
DECLARATION ON THE USE OF BLUE-RICH WHITE LIGHT SOURCES FOR NIGHTTIME LIGHTING

 

Additional Internet Links and Public Opinion:

https://fluxometer.com/rainbow/#!id=iPad%20Pro/6500K-iPad%20Pro<https://fluxometer.com/rainbow/#%21id=iPad%20Pro/6500K-iPad%20Pro

http://bizled.co.in/bright-bluish-white-leds-disrupt-sleep-says-us-medical-body

http://www.iac.es/adjuntos/otpc/International_Declaration_on_Blue-Rich_Light.pdf

http://www.concordmonitor.com/s-2985214

http://montrealgazette.com/news/local-news/opposition-calls-for-suspension-of-montreals-led-streetlights-project<http://montrealgazette.com/news/local-news/opposition-calls-for-suspension-of-montreals-led-streetlights-project

http://montrealgazette.com/news/local-news/montreals-push-for-outdoor-led-lights-isnt-just-a-night-sky-problem-its-unhealthy-scientists-warn

http://spie.org/newsroom/technical-articles/1015-led-light-pollution

http://www.getreading.co.uk/news/reading-berkshire-news/tilehurst-dog-walker-says-new-11220460

http://www.flagstaffdarkskies.org/for-wonks/lamp-spectrum-light-pollution

http://www.ledsmagazine.com/articles/print/volume-12/issue-10/features/street-lights/light-pollution-depends-on-the-light-source-cct.html

http://www.huffingtonpost.com/entry/streetlights-disrupt-sleep_us_56d51092e4b03260bf780136?ncid=tweetlnkushpmg00000067

http://uk.businessinsider.com/astronaut-photos-light-polution-led-nasa-esa-2015-8

THE HABITAT III INNOVATION and SUSTAINABILITY PRINCIPLE

Habitat III will Adopt, commit, implement, encourage, promote adequate investments, support, recognize, invite, underscore and promote sustainable urban innovation opportunities;

Innovation; promoting full and productive employment and decent work for all, ensuring decent job creation and equal access for all to economic and productive resources and opportunities; preventing land speculation; and promoting secure land tenure and managing urban shrinking where appropriate.

Effective, innovative, and sustainable financing frameworks and instruments, enabling strengthened municipal finance and local fiscal systems in order to create, sustain, and share the value generated by sustainable urban development in an inclusive manner.

Innovation, entrepreneurship, inclusion, identity and safety, and the dignity of all people, as well as to foster livability and a vibrant urban economy.

Develop vibrant, sustainable, and inclusive urban economies, building on endogenous potentials, competitive advantages, cultural heritage and local resources, as well as resource-efficient and resilient infrastructure, promoting sustainable and inclusive industrial development, and sustainable consumption and production patterns, and fostering an enabling environment for businesses and innovation, as well as livelihoods.

(Providing the labor force with access to income-earning opportunities, knowledge, skills and educational facilities that contribute to an innovative and competitive urban economy.) NON-SUSTAINABILITY Para 56

Promote an enabling, fair, and responsible business environment, based on the principles of environmental sustainability and inclusive prosperity, promoting investments, innovations, and entrepreneurship.

Sustain and support urban economies to progressively transition to higher productivity through high-value-added sectors, promoting diversification, technological upgrading, research, and innovation.

Adopt a smart city approach, which makes use of opportunities from digitalization, clean energy and technologies, as well as innovative transport technologies, thus providing options for inhabitants to make more environmentally friendly choices and boost sustainable economic growth and enabling cities to improve their service delivery.

Integrated planning that aims to balance short-term needs with long-term desired outcomes of a competitive economy, high quality of life, and sustainable environment. Strive to build in flexibility in our plans in order to adjust to changing social and economic conditions over time. Implement and systematically evaluate these plans, while making efforts to leverage innovations in technology and to produce a better living environment.

National, sub-national, and local governments to develop and expand financing instruments, enabling them to improve their transport and mobility infrastructure and systems, such as mass rapid transit systems, integrated transport systems, air and rail systems, and safe, sufficient and adequate pedestrian and cycling infrastructure and technology-based innovations in transport and transit systems to reduce congestion and pollution while improving efficiency, connectivity, accessibility, health, and quality of life.

Protective, accessible, and sustainable infrastructure and service provision systems for water, sanitation, and hygiene, sewage, solid waste management, urban drainage, reduction of air pollution, and storm water management, in order to improve safety against water-related disasters, health, and ensure universal and equitable access to safe and affordable drinking water for all; as well as access to adequate and equitable sanitation and hygiene for all; and end open defecation, with special attention to the needs and safety of women and girls and those in vulnerable situations. Seek to ensure this infrastructure is climate-resilient and forms part of integrated urban and territorial development plans, including housing and mobility, among others, and is implemented in a participatory manner, considering innovative, resource efficient, accessible, context specific, and culturally sensitive sustainable solutions.

Leveraging cultural heritage for sustainable urban development, and recognize its role in stimulating participation and responsibility, and promote innovative and sustainable use of architectural monuments and sites with the intention of value creation, through respectful restoration and adaptation.

The implementation of the New Urban Agenda requires an enabling environment and a wide range of means of implementation including access to science, technology, and innovation and enhanced knowledge sharing on mutually agreed terms, capacity development, and mobilization of financial resources, taking into account the commitment of developed countries and developing countries, tapping into all available traditional and innovative sources at the global, regional, national, sub-national, and local levels as well as enhanced international cooperation and partnerships among governments at all levels, the private sector, civil society, the United Nations system, and other actors..

Call on businesses to apply their creativity and innovation toward solving sustainable development challenges in urban areas, provide financial support, including through innovative financial mechanisms, to programmes and projects to implement.

(International multilateral financial institutions, regional development banks, development finance institutions, and cooperation agencies to “provide” financial support, including through innovative financial mechanisms, to programmes and projects to implement the New Urban Agenda, particularly in developing countries.) NON-SUSTAINABILITY Para 142

Need for enhanced cooperation and knowledge exchange on science, technology and innovation to the benefit of sustainable urban development, in full coherence, coordination and synergy with the processes of the Technology Facilitation Mechanism established under the Addis Ababa Action Agenda and launched under the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development.

Recognize the significant contribution of voluntary collaborative initiatives, partnerships and coalitions that plan to initiate and enhance the implementation of the New Urban Agenda, highlighting best practices and innovative solutions including by promoting co-production networks between sub-national entities, local governments and other relevant stakeholders.

Development of national information and communications technology policies and egovernment strategies as well as citizen-centric digital governance tools, tapping into technological innovations, including capacity development programmes, in order to make information and communications technologies accessible to the public, including women and girls, children and youth, persons with disabilities, older persons and persons in vulnerable situations, to enable them to develop and exercise civic responsibility, broadening participation and fostering responsible governance, as well as increasing efficiency.

Science, research, and innovation, including a focus on social, technological, digital and nature-based innovation, robust science-policy interfaces in urban and territorial planning and policy formulation, as well as institutionalized mechanisms for sharing and exchanging information, knowledge and expertise, including the collection, analysis, standardization and dissemination of geographically-based, community-collected, high-quality, timely and reliable data, disaggregated by income, sex, age, race, 21 ethnicity, migration status, disability, geographic location, and other characteristics relevant in national, sub-national, and local contexts.

 

Source: HABITAT III NEW URBAN AGENDA Draft outcome document for adoption in Quito, October 2016